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高血压运动疗法机制的研究进展

  • 武晶琼,何庆华

* 通信作者: 何庆华, 单位:广西民族大学

摘要

高血压作为危害人类身体健康的、致残的常见心血管疾病,目前治疗的药物和

方法很多,而国内外的治疗经验都肯定了运动是高血压病的有效辅助疗法,有关运动降低高血压病的内在机制,一直是国内外科研单位致力研究的热点,本文就以下几方面进行了探讨。 (一) 降低交感神经兴奋性 运动训练可以调节大脑皮层及皮质下血管运动中枢,使其紧张度趋于正常,促使血压下降且运动训练可调节植物神经功能,降低交感神经兴奋性,提高迷走神经兴奋性,缓解小动脉痉挛,降低血压 (二) 减轻动脉壁僵硬度,增加收缩期动脉的顺应性 规律的有氧运动可以减弱年龄对大动脉血管顺应性的影响的

结论,而且这可能是运动减低心血管疾病发生率的一个机制。 (三) 促使内皮细胞释放NO,NO能降低血浆胆固醇水平 长期运动可以使NO增加和ET-1下降,这可能对心血管系统产生有益的影响。 (四) 增加胰岛素敏感性 尽管许多研究表明IR与原发性高血压密切相关,但是IR与原发性高血压之间的关系目前仍无定论。大部分学者认为IR是原发性高血压的发病原因之一。许多的研究报道,运动本身可减轻机体对胰岛素的抵抗,并且也可以通过体脂分布的变化来影响机体对胰岛素的敏感性[20] 另一方面高血压动物和人的肌肉组织的下列特性,可能对胰岛素抗性的产生起重要的作用:1.血管稀疏2.肌肉各型纤维的比列发生改变3毛细血管密度

关键词: 高血压 运动 分子机制

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a common harmful cardiovascular disease to health and may lead to disability. Also, hypertension is a serious worldwide problem. Currently, there are various clinical ways and administrations to treat hypertension. Studies show that exercise is an essential and effective therapy which can reduce blood pressure, improve symptoms, decrease medicine intake. The molecular mechanism of exercise-induced blood pressure decrease is the focus. Followings are the main aspects of the molecular mechanism of exercise-induced blood pressure decrease. 1). Exercise can reduce sympathetic excitatory. Exercise can regulate the cerebral cortex and subcritical vasomotor center, reduce blood pressure and lead its tension degree tend to the normal. Also exercise can regulate the autonomic function, reduce sympathetic excitatory, improve electrical stimulation of vogues nerve and ease the spasm of small arteries thus lower blood pressure. 2). Exercise can reduce the arterial wall stiffness and increase systolic arterial compliance. The regular aerobic exercise can weaken the effect of aging on the main artery compliance, which may be one of mechanisms exercise reducing the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. 3). Exercise can promote the release of NO from endothelial cells. As we all know, NO can reduce plasma cholesterol levels. Long-term exercise can increase NO and induce ET-1, which may improve the function of cardiovascular system. 4). Exercise can increase insulin sensitivity. Many studies indicate that IR is related to hypertension. But the exact relationship between IR and hypertension is unknown. Most researchers agree that IR is one factor of hypertension. Lots of studies report that exercise can reduce insulin resistance and induce body fat redistribution which influence the body's sensitivity to insulin [20]. In addition, hypertensive animals have the characteristics of vascular rarefaction, change in ratio of types of muscle fibers and capillary densities, which may play an important role in insulin resistance.

Key words: hypertension, exercise, molecular mechanisms

引用本文 / How to Cite This Article

武晶琼,何庆华.高血压运动疗法机制的研究进展[J]. 国际精神病学杂志, , (): -

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